gouqi

English translation of commonly used terms in Chinese medicine

中医
①traditional Chinese medicine②traditional Chinesephysician
①中医学的简称。②本学科专业职业队伍。
中药
Chinesemateria medica
在中医理论指导下应用的药物。包括中药材、中药饮片和中成药等。
中医学
traditionalChinese medicine
以中医药理论与实践经验为主体,研究人类生命活动中健康与疾病转化规律及其预防、诊断、治疗、康复和保健的综合性科学。
中药学
Chinese materiamedica
中药学科的统称。研究中药基本理论和各种药材饮片、中成药的来源、采制、性能、功效、临床应用等知识的学科。
中医药
traditionalChinese medicine and pharmacology
本草
Materia medica
中药
Chinese materiamedica,Chinese medicinals(包括植物药、动物药、矿物药等)
中草药
Chinese HerbalMedicine,Chinese medicinal herbs
中药学
Chinese pharmaceutics
药材
Medicinalsubstance(material)
中西医结合
integration of traditional and western medicine
中医基础理论
basictheory of traditional Chinese medicine
中医诊断学
diagnostics of traditional Chinese medicine
方剂学
prescriptions of Chinese materia medica,
Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae/ prescriptions
中医内科学
internal medicine of traditional Chinese medicine
阴阳The Theory of Yinand Yang

阴阳对立
Opposition of yin and yang
阴阳制约
Restriction of/between yin and yang
阴阳互根
Interdependence of yin and yang
阴阳消长
Waxing and waning of yin and yang
阴阳转化
Inter-transformation of yin and yang
五行学说 The Theory of Five Elements

五行
water, fire, wood, metal, soil

promote, generate,engender

act, restrict, restrain

overact, over-restrict, over-restrain, subjugate, overwhelm

counteract, counter-restrict, counter-restrain, rebel
整体观念 concept of organicwholeness

辩证法
dialectics
生长化收藏
sprouting, growth, transformation, ripening, storage
内外环境统一性
the unity between the internal and external environments
机体自身整体性
the integrity of the body itself
古代唯物论和辩证法
classic Chinese materialism and dialectics
矛盾统一
the contradictory unity
互相联系、相互影响
related to each other and influence each other
标本
Biao (secondary aspect) and Ben (primary aspect)
本质与现象
nature and phenomena
矛盾的普遍性和特殊性
universality and speciality of contradictions
寒者热之
cold disease should be treated by warm therapy
热者寒之
warm disease should be treated by cold therapy
虚者补之
deficiency syndrome should be treated by tonifying therapy
实者泻之
excess syndrome should be treated by purgation therapy
治病必求其本
Treatment of diseases must concentrate on the root cause
同病异治
treatment of the same disease with different therapeutic methods
异病同治
treatment of different diseases with the same therapeutic method
精气神

清阳为天
the lucid Yang ascends to form the heaven
浊阴为地
the turbid Yin descends to constitute the earth
气化
qi transformation
升降出入
ascending,descending, going out, coming in
出入废则神机化灭,升降息则气立孤危。
if the activities of going out and coming into stop, the transforming mechanism of Shen (Spirit) will be damaged; if the activities of ascending and descending stop, Qi will be immediately isolated and endangered.
精气
jingqi (Essential-Qi)
先天之精
prenatal essence
后天之精
postnatal essence

Shen (spirit)
形神学说
the theory of body and spirit
形与神俱
the body and the Shen (Spirit) exist simultaneously
形神统一
the unity between the body and the Shen (Spirit)
治则

病邪
pathogenicfactors
正气存内,邪不可干。
Sufficient Healthy-Qi inside the body will prevent invasion of pathogenic factors.
邪之所凑,其气必虚。
The region where pathogenic factors invades must be deficient in Qi.
顺四时而适寒暑,和喜怒而安居处
Abidance to the changes of the four seasons, active adapation to cold and heat, harmony of emotional changes and peaceful living.
养生防病,延年益寿
cultivating health, preventing disease and prolonging life
气血津液

气化
qi transformation
气机
qi movement
元气(原气)
primordial ( yuan qi)
真气
genuine qi (zhenqi)
宗气
pectoral qi (zong qi)
营气
nutritive qi( yingqi)
卫气
defensive qi(wei qi)
气的推动功能
promoting action of Qi
气的温煦功能
warming actionof Qi
气的防御功能
defending action of Qi
气的固摄功能
controlling action of Qi
气的气化功能
action of Qi Transformation

水谷精微
cereal essence
营气和津液
nutrient qiand body fluid
营养和滋润
nourishing and moistening
血主濡之。
Blood is responsible for nurturing body.
中焦受气取汁,变化而赤,是谓血。
The middle energizer receives qi, takes the juice and transforms into red liquid called blood.
血虚
blood deficiency/asthenia
血瘀
blood stasis/stagnation
血热
blood-heat
血寒
blood-cold
出血
hemorrhage
津液

津液
Body fluid /Jin and Ye
稠厚度
thickness
成分,功能,分布
property, function, distribution
分泌物
secreta
胆汁、肠液、鼻涕、眼泪、汗液、尿液
gastric juice, intestinal juice, nasal discharge, tears, sweat, urine
形成
formation
分布
distribution
排泄
excretion
脾的传输
transmitting of thespleen
肺的宣降
dispersing and descenging of the lung
肾的蒸腾气化
steaming and transforming of the kidney
三焦为通道
the triple energizerserve as the passage-way
饮入于胃,游溢精气,上输于脾,脾气散精,上归于肺,通调水道,下输膀胱,水精四布,五经并行。
After food and water have entered the stomach, they are digested and transformed into food essence and then, transmitted upward to the spleen, which disperses the essence upward to the lung and the lung regulates water pathways downward to the urinary bladder. And by doing so body fluid is finally disseminated to all parts of the body along all the meridians and collaterals.
津液由胃中消化吸收、小肠进行分清别浊、脾运化的水谷中形成;津液的分布和排泄由许多脏腑组织共同完成,如脾的运化功能、肺的宣发肃降功能、肾的蒸发沉降功能;津液以三焦为通道进行分布和排泄。
Body fluid is formed from food and water by digestion and absorption of the stomach, separating the clarity from the turbidity of the small intestine and tramformation of the spleen; the distribution and excretion of body fluid are accomplished by the joint action of many zang-fu organ, such as the transforming function of the spleen, the dispersing and descending function of the lung, the steaming and ascending function of the kidney; and body fluid takes triple energizer as its passage way for distribution and excretion.
藏象学说 The Theory of Visceral Manifestation

脏腑
the internalorgans, viscera.
藏/脏
solid organs, viscera, depots, zang organs, yin organs
府/腑
hollow organs, bowels (the intestines), palaces, fu organs, yang organs
五脏
five viscera,five zang organs, the yin organs
六腑
six bowels, six fu organs, the yang organs
心,肝,脾,肺,肾
heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney
胆,胃,大肠,小肠,膀胱,三焦
gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, smallintestine, (urinary) bladder, triple energizer/burner
奇恒之腑
extraordinary fu organs
脑、髓、骨、脉、胆、女子胞
brain, marrow, bone, vessel, gallbladder, uterus
心包
pericardium
上/中/下焦
upper/ middle/lower energizer/burner
命门
gate of life, life gate, vital gate, gate of vitality
苗窍
signal orifice
膻中
thoracic center
膜(募)原
interior-exteriorinterspace
五神
five emotions
五华
five lustre
五体
five bodyconstituents
五志
five minds
五液
five humors
七情
seven emotions
膏肓
cardio-diaphgramaticinterspace
丹田
Dantan /Elixir field
赤白肉际
dorso-ventral boundary (of the hand or foot),
血府
blood vessel
髓府
bone
血海
liver (orconception vessel)
髓海
brain
血室
uterus (orconception vessel)
精室
life gate
藏精气而不泻
storing essencewithout leaking
传化物而不藏
digesting andtransporting food and drink without storing essence /transform food into essence but not store it
心主血脉。
The heart governs the blood and (blood ) vessels.
The heart regulates the flow of blood.(circulation)
心藏神。
The heart stores the spirit.
心开窍于舌。
The heart opens into the tongue.
舌为心之苗窍。
The tongue is the sprout of the heart.
心,其华在面。
The Heart’s brilliance manifests in the face.
The heart’s bloom is in the face.
The heart has its outward manifestations on theface.
心与小肠相表里。
The heart stands in interior-exterior relationship with the small intestine.
肺主气,通调水道。
The lung governs qi.
The lung regulates the waterways.
The lungs move and adjust the Water Channels.
肺主皮毛。
The lung governs the skin and [body] hair.
The lung is in charge of the body surface.
肺合皮毛。
The lung is interrelated with the skin and [body]hair.
The brilliance of the Lungs manifests in the bodyhair.
In other words, the Lungs regulate the secretion of sweat, the moistening of the skin, and resistance to External Pernicious Influences.
肺开窍于鼻。
The lung opens at thenose.
鼻为息道。The nose is the“thoroughfare for respiration”.
Many common nose and throat disorders aretherefore treated through the Lungs.
肺与大肠相表里。
The lung stands in interior-exterior relationship with the large intestine.
The lung governs qi and the heart governs blood.
肺为贮痰之器,脾为生痰之源。
The lung is the receptacle that holds phlegm and the spleen is the source of phlegm formation.
肺为气之主,肾为气之根。
The lung is the governor of qi and the kidney is the root of qi.
肺主一身之表。
The lung is in charge of the body surface.
肺主气,司呼吸。
The lung governs qi, performs respiration/controlls breathing
主宣发肃降
governs disseminating, cleansing and descending/ governs diffusion, purification and descending
通调水道
regulates the waterways
肺朝百脉,主治节
The lung connecting all vessels/The lung faces all the blood vessels, governs management and regulation
脾主运化水谷,输布精微。
The spleen governs movement (transportation) and transformation of grain and water and distribution of its essence.
脾统血。
The spleen manages the blood.
脾主肌肉和四肢,开窍于口。
The spleen governs the flesh and limbs, and opens into the mouth.
胃主受纳和腐熟水谷。
Take in, food intake
Decompose, digest food into chyme
The stomach governs intake and decomposition (digestion) of grain and water.
升清
Send clarity (pure) upward
小肠主泌别清浊。
The small intestine governs separation of theclear and the turbid.
大肠主传化糟粕。
the large intestine governs transformation and conveyance of waste.
肝主疏泄。
The liver governs free coursing, which refers toliver qi’s physiological function of ensuring smooth free flow (of qi and blood).
Ensuring smooth and regular floe of qi;
胆汁的化生和排泄
Secretion and discharge of bile
Emotional disturbance: mental depression, impatience,etc.
肝藏血。
The liver stores blood.
肝藏血是指肝有贮存血液和调节血量的作用。
The liver is capable of retaining blood and regulating the amount of blood in the body.
食气入胃,淫精于肝。
Food qi enters the stomach and sends essence to the liver.
肝主筋,其华在爪。
The liver governs the sinews; its bloom is the nails.
肝主筋。爪为筋之余。肝,其华在爪。
The liver governs the sinews: the movement of all the sinews of the body is associated with the liver.
肝开窍于目。
The liver opens atthe eyes.
肾藏精,主生长、发育和生殖。
The kidney stores essence (or essential qi), andis responsible for growth, development, and reproduction. (maturation)
肾主骨、生髓。
The kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow.
肾主水。
The kidney governs water.
肾开窍于耳和二阴。其华在发。
The kidney opens into the ears and the two yin(the two private parts: the urethra and anus) and its bloom is in the hair of the head.
滋养和濡润
moisten and nourish
推动和温煦
warm and activate
化生和贮藏精气
produce and store essence
受盛和传化水谷
receive, trsport and transform water and food
有诸内,必形诸外。
Viscera inside the body must manifest themselves externally.
病因 Etiology

邪,病邪
Evil; Pathogenic factor; Pathogen
六淫
six excesses; six exogenous pathogenic factors; six climatic pathogenic factors; Six external pernicious influences
风、寒、暑、湿、燥、火
wind, cold,summer-heat, dampness, dryness,fire
外感六淫
diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic factor
六气
Six qi; Six natural factors;Six climatic factors; Six climatic influences;Six exogenous qi
疫疠(疠气)
Pestilence; pestilential qi
内生五邪
Five Endogenous Pathogenic Factors; Five Internal Pernicious Influences
七情
seven emotions; seven affects
喜、怒、忧、思、悲、恐、惊
joy, anger, melancholy (sadness, worry), anxiety (pensiveness, contemplation), grief (sorrow), fear, fright
七情内伤
internal damage due to seven emotions
饮食
Improper diet; imbalanced diet
内伤脾胃,百病由生。
Internal damage of the spleen and stomach will result in the occurrence of various diseases./The occurrence of various diseases may result from the internal damage of the spleen and stomach.
外伤
traumaticinjuries
跌打损伤,金刃伤,虫兽咬伤
Traumatic injuries due to fall, cuts, insect or animal bites
痰饮
Phlegm-fluid
瘀血
Blood stasis

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